CPAP or Constant Constructive Airway Pressure is a mode of synthetic air flow of the lungs with the creation of positive pressure within the airways after exhalation. Presently, CPAP-therapy is used for the remedy of loud night breathing, sleep apnea treatment, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular ailments, daytime sleepiness, obesity, impotence, insomnia, and depression. How can CPAP-remedy treatment so many illnesses? It’s believed that every one of these diseases are closely associated with a disturbance of normal sleep.
Why is Sleep so Important?
Sleep helps the body to calm down from the stress with which an individual is confronted every day. Throughout sleep, hormonal regulation occurs in our body. Some hormones secrete solely throughout sleep, and a few hormones secrete solely after sleep. Due to this fact, if sleep is impaired, it leads to a disturbance of the hormonal balance and nervous system transmitters, which in the end causes the development of varied psychological and physical diseases. The main cause of disturbance of regular sleep is sleep apnea.
Sleep apnea is an absence of pulmonary ventilation throughout sleep for more than 10 seconds, which is characterised by decreasing of oxygen saturation in the blood (SaO2) by 4% or more. Usually, sleep apnea lasts for 20-30 seconds, nevertheless, in extreme cases it can last for two-three minutes. The number of episodes of sleep apnea might typically be as much as 60% of the total nighttime sleep. Regular sleep apnea (often not less than 10-15 occasions within an hour) is called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The primary signs of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are daytime sleepiness, deterioration of memory and intelligence affecting skill to work and a relentless sense of fatigue.
The main cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is an obstruction of the higher airways. Obstruction of the higher airways signifies that air cannot get into the lungs and there may be oxygen deprivation of the entire organism.
CPAP – Why is it Used?
Constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective technique of treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. CPAP-remedy was launched to scientific practice in 1981 by an Australian physician and Professor. Colin Sullivan for the therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
The mechanism of action of the CPAP gadget is quite simple. A small compressor is used for creating fixed air circulation below a certain pressure in the airways during exhalation by a versatile tube and a nose mask. It is also used a humidifier that provides moisturizing and heats the air which enters the airways. This device doesn’t permit the upper airways to be obstructed because of the fixed constructive air pressure and eliminates the primary cause of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
CPAP-remedy for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is now universally accepted. Before prescribing CPAP-therapy, a Polysomnography is required or in other words a Sleep Study. Polysomnography is a medical examination of a affected person’s sleep with using specialised pc systems. Polysomnography allows calculating the apnea index and figuring out the severity of the disease.
The apnea index is the frequency of apnea episodes throughout one hour of sleep. Apnea index determines the severity of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The apnea index is considered pathologically significant if there are more than 20 apnea episodes per hour, regardless of the presence or absence of medical symptoms. By the way in which, even more than 5 attacks of sleep apnea episodes are considered to be threatening for a person with a gradual development of daytime drowsiness, memory impairment, psycho-emotional disorders, insomnia, development of cardiovascular diseases (arterial hypertension, coronary coronary heart disease or stroke), and disturbance of cardiac rhythm.
CPAP – How is it Used?
The primary session of CPAP-remedy is performed on the following night after a diagnostic polysomnography. The aim of the primary CPAP session is to pick out the minimal air pressure that eliminates obstructive apnea, snoring and other respiratory disturbances in all positions of the body and in all levels of sleep. During the first session of CPAP devices-remedy, the minimal set of parameters might be recorded: electroencephalography, electrooculography, electromyography, chest and belly movements, body position, snoring, electrocardiography, blood saturation. These parameters permit you to decide the work of the brain and the stage of sleep, which excludes the possibility of insufficient air pressure through undiagnosed wakefulness episodes.
The “golden rule” is to use CPAP machine each evening during your entire time of sleep. Sufferers typically follow this suggestion in extreme forms of obstructive sleep apnea. In this case, there is an enchancment in the high quality of sleep and daytime activity. Within the mild and moderate forms of the disease, the irritating effect of the masks and airflow might sometimes decrease the standard of sleep, nevertheless, there is a clear optimistic effect on daytime activity and on a number of other symptoms. One of many vital advantages of CPAP-remedy is the absence of side effects.